Values and Subjective Experience of Motherhood as Predictors of Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and School Achievement of (Pre)Adolescents
Keywords:values, parenthood, (pre)adolescence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, school achievement
AbstractThe theoretical framework of this paper is the theory of value contents and structure and the model of parenting experience as a starting point for researching parental influences on the developmental outcomes of adolescents. The aim of the research was to examine the relationship between the universal values of mothers and the subjective experience of motherhood and self-esteem, selfefficacy and school achievement of (pre)adolescents. A total of 234 mother-child dyads participated in the research, and the following self-assessment questionnaires and scales were used: General Data Questionnaires for mother and adolescents, Self-Efficiency Questionnaire for children, Self-Esteem Scale, Life Values Questionnaire and Parental Sense of Competence Questionnaire. The results confirmed some expected gender differences in adolescents, as well as differences in mothers’ values with respect to their age and level of education. Subjective assessment of maternal competence was significantly correlated with values of achievement, power, and triad of conservative values. Regression analyses showed that a smaller portion of the variance of self-esteem, self-efficacy and achievement of (pre)adolescents can be attributed to the values of the mother, with the most important role being conservative values.