Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET): A Cross-cultural Validation in Portuguese and Croatian Contexts


  • Ana Costa Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto, Portugal
  • Luisa Faria Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Porto, Portugal
  • Vladimir Takšić Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Rijeka, Croatia


emotional intelligence, validation, cross-cultural research, secondary school students, ability-based measure


This article discusses the adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET) in the Portuguese and Croatian contexts, an Emotional Intelligence ability measure with 35 items, which assesses individual's ability to understand emotion. Based on Mayer and Salovey's (1997) theoretical framework of emotional intelligence, VET was originally developed in Croatian academic settings by Takšić, Harambašić and Velemir (2003). This study involved 1119 secondary school students, 682 Portuguese and 437 Croatian, attending different grades and courses. Overall, in both Croatian (original version) and Portuguese (adapted version) contexts, VET evidenced good psychometric properties particularly concerning sensibility, difficulty item analysis and reliability, although slightly better indicators were found in the Croatian original version. Moreover, cultural and gender differences were found, benefiting Portuguese students and girls.