How Does Metacognition Contribute to the Regulation of Learning? An Integrative Approach


  • Anastasia Efklides School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece


metacognition, monitoring, control, affect, motivation


The paper addresses issues related to the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring and the effectiveness of control. Based on the enriched model of metacognition (Efklides, 2008), the facets and levels of functioning of metacognition are presented as well as the processes underlying each facet at the various levels of metacognition. Review of current research on monitoring (i.e., metacognitive experiences and metacognitive knowledge) suggests that monitoring can be inaccurate but factors such as prior knowledge, feedback, and attending to task context and response features can increase accuracy. Control, on the other hand, can be triggered by cognition, affect and metacognition. Research evidence on the relations between monitoring and control suggests that monitoring accuracy can support more effective control decisions but not always. Moreover, control can be ineffective due to lack of resources. What is of interest is that control decisions are often influenced by motivational considerations rather than objective task difficulty and through effects of affect on metacognitive monitoring. This implies that metacognition should be viewed within a broader theoretical framework of self-regulation such as the Metacognitive and Affective model of Self-regulated Learning (Efklides, 2011). The implications of the model are discussed as well as the challenges for future research on metacognition.